What is Autism?
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are lifelong developmental disabilities characterised by marked difficulties in social interaction, impaired communication, restricted and repetitive interests and behaviours and sensory sensitivities.The word ‘spectrum’ is used because the range and severity of the difficulties people with an ASD experience can vary widely. ASDs include autistic disorder, Asperger’s disorder and pervasive developmental disorder – not otherwise specified, which is also known as atypical autism. Sometimes the word “autism” is used to refer to all ASDs. Research shows that about 1 in 68 children have an ASD and that it is more prevalent in boys than girls. The effects of an ASD can often be minimised by early diagnosis and with the right interventions, many children and adults with an ASD show marked improvements.
The three main areas of difficulty are:
1. Impairment in social interaction
- Limited use and understanding of non-verbal communication such as eye gaze, facial expression and gesture
- Difficulties forming and sustaining friendships
- Lack of seeking to share enjoyment, interest and activities with other people
- Difficulties with social and emotional responsiveness
2. Impairment in communication
- Delayed language development
- Difficulties initiating and sustaining conversations
- Stereotyped and repetitive use of language such as repeating phrases from television
- Limited imaginative or make-believe play
3. Restricted and repetitive interests, activities and behaviours
- Unusually intense or focused interests
- Stereotyped and repetitive body movements such as hand flapping and spinning
- Repetitive use of objects such as repeatedly flicking a doll’s eyes or lining up toys
- Adherence to non-functional routines such as insisting on travelling the same route home each day
In addition to these main areas of difficulties, individuals with an ASD may also have:
- Unusual sensory interests such as sniffing objects or staring intently at moving objects
- Sensory sensitivities including avoidance of everyday sounds and textures such as hair dryers, vacuum cleaners and sand
- Intellectual impairment or learning difficulties
The Signs of Autism more analytical here
What are the different types of ASD?
The term ASD is an umbrella description which refers to three different diagnoses. Regardless of the specific diagnosis given, individuals with an ASD will experience difficulties in many different social situations such as school and work.
- Autistic disorder (sometimes referred to as classic autism)
The diagnosis of autistic disorder is given to individuals with impairments in social interaction and communication as well as restricted and repetitive interests, activities and behaviours which are generally evident prior to three years of age.
- Asperger’s disorder (sometimes referred to as Asperger’s syndrome)
Individuals with Asperger’s disorder have difficulties with social interaction and social communication as well as restricted and repetitive interests, activities and behaviours. Individuals with Asperger’s disorder do not have a significant delay in early language acquisition and there is no significant delay in cognitive abilities or self help skills. Asperger’s is often detected later than autistic disorder as speech usually develops at the expected age.
- Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) (sometimes referred to as atypical autism)
The diagnosis of PDD-NOS or atypical autism is made when an individual has a marked social impairment but fails to meet full criteria for either autistic disorder or Asperger’s disorder. These individuals may also have communication impairments and/or restricted and repetitive interests, activities and behaviours.
How is ASD diagnosed?
ASD is diagnosed through an assessment which includes observing and meeting with the individual, their family and service providers. Information is gathered regarding the individual’s strengths and difficulties, particularly in the areas of social interaction and communication as well as restricted and repetitive interests, activities and behaviours.
Such information may be obtained by administering standardised tests or questionnaires. ASD is usually diagnosed in early childhood, but assessments can be undertaken at any age. There is no single behaviour that indicates ASD. There are no blood tests that can detect ASD.
Developmental paediatricians, psychiatrists and psychologists with experience in assessing individuals with ASD are qualified to make a diagnosis. When making a diagnosis, the clinician will usually first determine whether an individual meets the criteria for autistic disorder. If all the criteria are not met, they may consider Asperger’s disorder, or PDD-NOS (atypical autism).
What causes ASD?
Currently, there is no single known cause for ASD, however recent research has identified strong genetic links. ASD is not caused by an individual’s upbringing or their social circumstances.
Is there a cure?
There is presently no known cure for ASD. However, with Early Intervention, the diverse symptoms related to autism can be greatly improved and in some cases completely overcome. Every individual with ASD will make progress, although each individual’s progress will be different. Progress depends on a number of factors including the unique make up of the individual and the type and intensity of intervention. Just always remember that Children with autism do progress – early intervention is key. There might not be a certain cure but Autism is treatable, not a hopeless condition.
Different types of Autism Treatment
Early Intervention is the key in autism treatment, where the symptoms can be greatly improved or complete overcome. There are different opinions, sometimes confusing for the parents, about which treatment is best for their child's early intervention, but there is only one known evidence based science that treats autism, the "Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA)".
Everything else like Verbal Behavior (VB), floortime, TEACCH, Son-Rise, Relationship Development Intervention, Peak, Esdm, Pbs etc, all of them are behavioural modification techniques not a science; all of them are based on the science of ABA (Applied Behaviour Analysis).
At the Blooming Tree ABA Clinic we choose different behavioural modification techniques (some of the above) or a combination of different ABA techniques after assessing a child, based on that every child is a unique case on skill levels, age, needs, barriers etc., so the treatment should be individually designed and implemented.